The research papers on the Shroud of Turin written by Robert A. Rucker are organized as follows:

·         The sequence of papers with the most recent paper at the top.  The public release date for revision 0 of each paper is included.

·         The papers are arranged by topics.

·         The abstracts of the papers are given.

 

Sequence of Papers

Paper 18    “One Page Summaries”, November 14, 2018

Paper 17    “Evaluation of ‘A BPA Approach to the Shroud of Turin’”, September 27, 2018

Paper 16    “Explaining the Mysteries of the Shroud”, July 7, 2018

Paper 15    “Summary of Scientific Research on the Shroud of Turin”, July 7, 2018

Paper 14    “Potential Problems with a Cloth Collapse Hypothesis for Image Formation on the Shroud of Turin”, July 7, 2018

Paper 13    “The Carbon Dating Problem for the Shroud of Turin, Part 3:  The Neutron Absorption Hypothesis”, July 7, 2018

Paper 12    “The Carbon Dating Problem for the Shroud of Turin, Part 2:  Statistical Analysis”, July 7, 2018

Paper 11    “The Carbon Dating Problem for the Shroud of Turin, Part 1:  Background”, July 7, 2018

Paper 10    “Proposal for C14 Dating of Charred Material Removed from the Shroud”, April 29, 2018

Paper 9      “Ideas for Research on the Shroud of Turin”, November 10, 2016

Paper 8      “MCNP Analysis of Neutrons Released from Jesus’ Body in the Resurrection (PowerPoint)”, Narration, October 12, 2016

Paper 7      “Mr. Dotman in Lineland”, October 6, 2016

Paper 6      “Role of Radiation in Image Formation on the Shroud of Turin”, October 11, 2016

Paper 5      “Information Content on the Shroud of Turin”, October 11, 2016

Paper 4      “Review of ‘Test the Shroud’ by Mark Antonacci”, October 11, 2016

Paper 3      “Review of ‘The Shroud of Turin: Radiation Effects, Aging, and Image Formation’ by Ray Rogers”, October 11, 2016, by Robert A. Rucker, Giulio Fanti, Mark Antonacci, Tony Fleming, and Keith Propp

Paper 2      “The Disappearance of Jesus’ Body, Part 2:  Physical Considerations, October 11, 2016

Paper 1      “The Disappearance of Jesus’ Body, Part 1:  Biblical and Theological Considerations”, October 8, 2016

 

Papers by Topics

 

A.  Summary Papers

 

Paper 18    “One Page Summaries”, November 14, 2018

Paper 16    “Explaining the Mysteries of the Shroud”, July 7, 2018

Paper 15    “Summary of Scientific Research on the Shroud of Turin”, July 7, 2018

 

B.  The Carbon Dating Problem

 

Paper 13    “The Carbon Dating Problem for the Shroud of Turin, Part 3:  The Neutron Absorption Hypothesis”, July 7, 2018

Paper 12    “The Carbon Dating Problem for the Shroud of Turin, Part 2:  Statistical Analysis”, July 7, 2018

Paper 11    “The Carbon Dating Problem for the Shroud of Turin, Part 1:  Background”, July 7, 2018

Paper 10    “Proposal for C14 Dating of Charred Material Removed from the Shroud”, April 29, 2018

Paper 8      “MCNP Analysis of Neutrons Released from Jesus’ Body in the Resurrection (PowerPoint)”, Narration, October 12, 2016

 

C.  Image Formation on the Shroud

 

Paper 14    “Potential Problems with a Cloth Collapse Hypothesis for Image Formation on the Shroud of Turin”, July 7, 2018

Paper 6      “Role of Radiation in Image Formation on the Shroud of Turin”, October 11, 2016

Paper 5      “Information Content on the Shroud of Turin”, October 11, 2016

 

D.  Other Aspects of Shroud Science

 

Paper 9      “Ideas for Research on the Shroud of Turin”, November 10, 2016

 

E.  Evaluation of Items Written by Others

 

Paper 17    “Evaluation of ‘A BPA Approach to the Shroud of Turin’”, September 27, 2018

Paper 4      “Review of ‘Test the Shroud’ by Mark Antonacci”, October 11, 2016

Paper 3      “Review of ‘The Shroud of Turin: Radiation Effects, Aging, and Image Formation’ by Ray Rogers”, October 11, 2016, by Robert A. Rucker, Giulio Fanti, Mark Antonacci, Tony Fleming, and Keith Propp

 

F.  Miscellaneous

 

Paper 7      “Mr. Dotman in Lineland”, October 6, 2016

Paper 2      “The Disappearance of Jesus’ Body, Part 2:  Physical Considerations, October 11, 2016

Paper 1      “The Disappearance of Jesus’ Body, Part 1:  Biblical and Theological Considerations”, October 8, 2016

 

 

Abstracts of Papers


Paper 18    “One Page Summaries”, November 14, 2018


This paper consists of six one-page summaries of what is on the Shroud, history of the Shroud, image formation on the Shroud, carbon dating of the Shroud, is the image Jesus, and a list of books and papers we have written on the Shroud. 


Paper 17    “Evaluation of ‘A BPA Approach to the Shroud of Turin’”, September 27, 2018

 

Abstract:  This is an evaluation of a paper published July 10, 2018, in the Journal of Forensic Sciences.  The paper is titled “A BPA Approach to the Shroud of Turin” by Matteo Borrini, Ph.D., and Luigi Garlaschelli, M. Sc.  A “BPA” is a bloodstain pattern analysis.  This paper on BPA of the Shroud is evaluated to determine the soundness of its methods and conclusions.  Several elements are included in this evaluation.  The general problems with this type of analysis and the specific problems with the experimental procedures in Ref. 1 are considered first.  The main conclusions are then considered, including possible explanations of the alleged inconsistencies.  This is followed by a description and evaluation of the six experiments involved in the BPA.  The paper identifies two alleged inconsistencies between the results of the experiments and the blood on the Shroud:  1) the blood on the back of the left hand compared to the forearm, and  2) the blood on the lower back compared to the location of the side wound.  The authors concluded that the alleged contradictions point “against the authenticity of the Shroud itself, suggesting the Turin linen was an artistic or ‘didactic’ representation from the XIV century.”  There is nothing in their BPA analysis to indicate the century that the Shroud originated, so the authors evidently based this 14th-century date on their view of previous research on “the historical records, the radiocarbon dating, and the chemical analysis” of the Shroud.  As a result, this evaluation next considers the impact of presuppositions on the results of research, and a summary of previous research on the Shroud of Turin.  This research has led most Shroud researchers to reject the view that the Shroud originated in the 13th or 14th centuries, contrary to the conclusion in Ref. 1.  The conclusion also does not necessarily follow from the experimental results because the alleged inconsistencies are more likely to indicate our lack of understanding of the process before, during, and after crucifixion or result from inadequacies in the experimental procedures.  The conclusion of this evaluation is that the experimental results do not constitute valid evidence that the Shroud originated in the 14th century or constitute valid evidence that the Shroud of Turin is not the authentic burial cloth of Jesus.

 

Paper 16    “Explaining the Mysteries of the Shroud”, July 7, 2018

 

Abstract:  To determine whether the Shroud of Turin could be the authentic burial cloth of Jesus, the many mysteries related to the Shroud need to be explained with a logically consistent unbiased evidence-based approach that follows the evidence where it leads.  This is attempted in this paper based on information, radiation, and neutron absorption.  Why we can see the image on the Shroud is explained by the presence of information in the pattern of discolored fibers in the image.  Formation of the image is explained by radiation emitted from within the body that communicated the required information to the Shroud to form the image.  The carbon dating of the Shroud to 1260 to 1390 AD is explained by neutrons that were apparently included in this radiation.  A small fraction of these neutrons would have been absorbed in N14 in the Shroud to form new atoms of C14 in the Shroud.  This would have shifted the carbon date forward by up to thousands of years, depending on the location.  The man, who was crucified and whose body emitted radiation, is best understood to be Jesus.

 

Paper 15    “Summary of Scientific Research on the Shroud of Turin”, July 7, 2018

 

Abstract:  According to ancient tradition, the Shroud of Turin is the authentic burial cloth of Jesus.  To determine whether this could be true, more historical and scientific research has been done on the Shroud of Turin than on any other ancient artifact.  The purpose of this paper is to summarize the results of the scientific research on the Shroud of Turin.  This summary is based on the opinions of most Shroud researchers and on research by the author.  Research on the Shroud is summarized using nine summary statements.  A multi-step argument is given that the image on the Shroud is that of Jesus of Nazareth.  Two objections to these conclusions are considered – that they violate the laws of science and that the authenticity of the Shroud is disproven by the 1988 C14 dating of the Shroud, which concluded that the Shroud dates to 1260 to 1390 AD with a 95% probability.  Four reasons are discussed which indicate that this conclusion is not justified by the evidence.  This includes consideration of 15 indicators of the Shroud’s date and 6 indications that the 1988 statistical analysis of the C14 dating results was inadequate.  The neutron absorption hypothesis is used to explain the apparent C14 date to 1260 to 1390 AD.

 

Paper 14    “Potential Problems with a Cloth Collapse Hypothesis for Image Formation on the Shroud of Turin”, July 7, 2018

 

Abstract:  Images of the front and back of a naked crucified man can be seen on the Shroud of Turin.  Evidence indicates these images were caused by radiation.  The cloth collapse hypothesis holds that the disappearance of the body from within the Shroud of Turin created the conditions for the cloth to rapidly collapse into the region previously occupied by the body, where it encountered radiation that discolored the fibers thus forming the high-resolution front and back images on the Shroud.  Potential problems with this hypothesis include:  1) difficulty in forming the front and back images without side images by collapse of the Shroud under the forces of gravity and air pressure difference,  2) the speed of radiation is so much faster than the speed of the cloth that cloth movement becomes irrelevant, and  3) the cloth would not start to collapse until about 99.9% of the radiation had already gone through the cloth, again making cloth movement irrelevant to the image formation.  The last two problems can be avoided by assuming that the body becomes mechanically transparent when it starts to disappear.  The vertical radiation hypothesis is preferred over the cloth collapse hypothesis due to the latter’s difficulty in explaining why there are no side images.  An equation is derived for the distance that the cloth collapses as a function of time after the disappearance of the body.

 

Paper 13    “The Carbon Dating Problem for the Shroud of Turin, Part 3:  The Neutron Absorption Hypothesis”, July 7, 2018

 

Abstract:  In 1988, the C14 dating methodology was used (Damon, et al.) to date samples from the Shroud of Turin to 1260 to 1390 AD.  But research during the last 30 years has convinced leading Shroud researchers that the Shroud is much older than 1260 to 1390 AD, thus contradicting the results of the C14 dating.  To solve this carbon dating problem for the Shroud, a three-part series has been written that covers:  1) background,  2) statistical analysis, and  3) the neutron absorption hypothesis, which is this paper.  A more thorough statistical analysis than that originally done in Damon indicates that something (technically called a systematic bias) probably affected the measurement values, in addition to the normal random measurement errors.  This systematic bias was neither identified nor quantified in Damon so that the resulting date of the measurements (1260 – 1390 AD) should not be regarded as necessarily accurate.  There is much evidence to indicate that the image on the Shroud was caused by a burst of radiation from the body that was wrapped in it.  It is hypothesized in this paper that if neutrons were included in this burst of radiation, a small fraction of them would be absorbed in the trace amounts of N14 in the linen thus forming new C14 atoms primarily by the (N14 + neutron à C14 + proton) reaction.  This newly created C14 would be indistinguishable from the original C14 that was taken into the plant while it was alive, thus shifting the apparent C14 date in the positive direction by up to thousands of years.  Computer calculations were performed using the MCNP nuclear analysis computer code to determine that if 2 x 1018 neutrons were emitted from the body it would have increased the C14 concentration at the sample location by 16%, which would have shifted the C14 date from 30 AD to 1260 AD.  This number of neutrons is only one in every ten billion that would have been in the body that was wrapped in the Shroud.  The MCNP nuclear analysis computer calculations were used to determine C14 dates for samples taken from anywhere on the Shroud.  It was found that most locations would date to the future, assuming the usual equations are used to determine the date from the C14 concentration.  Specifically, for material removed in 2002 from under the patches at the elbows, samples should date to about 3500 to 4500 AD.  This neutron absorption hypothesis is the only hypothesis that is consistent with the four things that are known about C14 dating as it relates to the Shroud of Turin:

 

·         Uncorrected date of 1260 AD at the 1988 sample location,

·         Slope of the dates from the three laboratories of about 36 years per cm,

·         The range of the dates for the 16 subsamples (1155 to 1410 AD), and

·         C14 date of 700 AD for the Sudarium of Oviedo, which according to tradition is the face cloth of Jesus (John 20:7), and thus related to the Shroud.

 

Paper 12    “The Carbon Dating Problem for the Shroud of Turin, Part 2:  Statistical Analysis”, July 7, 2018

 

Abstract:  In 1988, the C14 dating methodology was used (Damon, et al.) to date samples from the Shroud of Turin to 1260 to 1390 AD.  But research during the last 30 years has convinced leading Shroud researchers that the Shroud of Turin is much older than 1260 to 1390 AD, thus contradicting the results of the C14 dating. To solve this carbon dating problem for the Shroud of Turin, a three-part series has been written that covers:  1) background,  2) statistical analysis, and  3) the neutron absorption hypothesis.  Part 1 on background information should be read and understood before this paper is attempted.  This paper is part 2 in the series and discusses the statistical analysis of the 1988 C14 date measurements.  To the extent possible, this paper is written for the layman, and uses only the Chi-squared statistical analysis technique that was used in Damon.  Part 3 in this series hypothesizes that neutron absorption in the Shroud explains the results found in the statistical analysis in this paper, as well as the C14 date to 1260 to 1390 AD.  In this paper, several indications are discussed that the range of the 1988 C14 date measurements is much too large in comparison to the measurement uncertainties.  This indicates that there is a serious problem with the data.  Most significantly, a Chi-squared statistical analysis of the measurement data indicates that the variation in the C14 date measurements has only a 1.4% probability of being consistent with the measurement uncertainties.  This indicates a 98% probability that something other than random measurement error was also affecting the measured values, such as, in statistical analysis terminology, a systematic bias.  Plotting the three laboratory average values indicates that this systematic bias is a function of the distance of the sample from the bottom of the Shroud.  This means that each measured value Mi was the result of the actual age (A) of the Shroud plus the bias B(xi, yi), where the xi and yi are the prior position coordinates of each sample (i) on the Shroud, combined with the one sigma random measurement error Ri.  The equation for this is Mi = A + B(xi, yi) ± Ri.  This systematic bias could have been sufficient to shift the date for the Shroud forward by up to thousands of years.  Part 3 of this series discusses the cause for this systematic bias.  Since the measured values listed in Damon are not corrected for the magnitude of the bias, the 1988 C14 date for the Shroud of 1260 to 1390 AD should not be accepted as necessarily valid, so that the conclusion that the Shroud dates it the Middle Ages is not proven.

 

Paper 11    “The Carbon Dating Problem for the Shroud of Turin, Part 1:  Background”, July 7, 2018

 

Abstract:  In 1988, the C14 dating methodology was used to date samples from the Shroud of Turin to 1260 to 1390 AD.  The problem with this date range is that it contradicts most other evidence which indicates that the Shroud of Turin is the authentic burial cloth of Jesus from the first century.  To solve this carbon dating problem for the Shroud of Turin, a three-part series has been written that covers:  1) background,  2) statistical analysis, and  3) the neutron absorption hypothesis.  This paper is part 1 in the series and covers background material that is needed to understand parts 2 and 3 in the series.  Basics of radiation and the C14 dating methodology are discussed to help people understand the neutron absorption hypothesis.  An extensive list of evidence is given why the C14 dating of the Shroud to the Middle Ages is not correct.  A simplified example is given of measurements with and without a systematic bias, and the characteristics of the data analysis are explained that demonstrate when a systematic bias is present.  This is required to understand the statistical analysis in Part 2 of this series.

 

Paper 10    “Proposal for C14 Dating of Charred Material Removed from the Shroud”, April 29, 2018

 

Abstract:  In 1988 the Shroud was carbon dated to the Middle Ages, but much other evidence is consistent with a first century date.  To resolve this discrepancy, this paper proposes that carbon dating be done on the charred material removed from the Shroud in 2002.  Information that defines the appearance of a crucified man was required by the discoloration mechanism to encode the image onto the Shroud.  There is good reason to believe that this information could only be transferred from the body to the cloth by a burst of radiation from within the body.  It is hypothesized that this burst of radiation evidently included neutrons, some of which would have been absorbed by the linen to form new C14 atoms on the Shroud.  An increase of only 16% in the C14 density at the sample location would shift the date from AD 30 to AD 1260.  Using the MCNP nuclear analysis software, computer calculations were run based on this hypothesis.  These computer calculations predict that the charred material from under the elbows should date to about AD 4000.  If measurements are made on this material and the measurements are consistent with the predictions, the conclusion of the 1988 dating of the Shroud to the Middle Ages will be invalidated.

 

Paper 9      “Ideas for Research on the Shroud of Turin”, November 10, 2016

 

Abstract:  This paper lists ideas for research that would be helpful to solve the main mysteries related to the Shroud of Turin.  This suggested research includes questions to be considered, and ideas for calculations and experiments to be done.  The ideas for this research come primarily from a review of the paper “Role of Radiation in Image Formation on the Shroud of Turin”.

 

Paper 8      “MCNP Analysis of Neutrons Released from Jesus’ Body in the Resurrection (PowerPoint)”, Narration, October 12, 2016

 

Abstract:  This paper documents the results of nuclear analysis computer calculations performed using the MCNP computer software.  These calculations were done to solve the carbon dating problem for the Shroud of Turin and were based on the neutron absorption hypothesis.  This paper was presented Oct. 11, 2014 at the international conference on the Shroud of Turin, titled “Shroud of Turin: The Controversial Intersection of Faith and Science” held in St. Louis October 9-12, 2014 (www.stlouisshroudconference.com).  This presentation included 54 PowerPoint slides.  This is the narration for these slides and is documented similar to that presented at the conference, allowing some flexibility for completeness and a few changes and corrections.

 

Paper 7      “Mr. Dotman in Lineland”, October 6, 2016

 

Abstract:  This is a short fictional story of Mr. Dotman in Lineland to convey what is meant by a transition into an alternate dimensionality.  This concept has application to the Shroud of Turin to help explain what may have happened, in physics terms, when Jesus’ body disappeared from within the Shroud.  A study of the pros and cons of several options for how this could have happened was documented in “The Disappearance of Jesus’ Body Part 2:  Physical Considerations”, which concluded that the most likely option that is within an extrapolation of concepts in modern physics is that Jesus’ body disappeared from within the Shroud by a transition into an alternate dimensionality.  Please go to this previous paper for further information.  The story of Mr. Dotman in Lineland was excerpted from pages 13 to 15 of this previous paper.

 

Paper 6      “Role of Radiation in Image Formation on the Shroud of Turin”, October 11, 2016

 

Abstract:  Formation of the image on the Shroud required three things:  a discoloration mechanism, energy, and information.  There must have been some process or mechanism that caused discoloration on the top portions of the fibers that make up the image on the Shroud.  Energy would have been required for the functioning of the discoloration mechanism to alter the covalent bonds of the carbon atoms in the cellulose molecules that caused the discoloration.  And information defining the shape of the body and the presence of some of the bones was needed to guide the process so that front and back images with good resolution could be formed.  It is argued that if we follow the evidence where it leads and not be constrained by a presupposition of naturalism, then we find that the best explanation for the evidence on the Shroud is that the required energy was delivered to the Shroud by radiation emitted from within the body, and that this radiation was probably vertically collimated both up and down.  Seventeen reasons are given for this view.  The radiation that was emitted from within the body, by means of its intensity and direction, carried the necessary information from the body to the Shroud so that the image could be formed.  A working hypothesis is developed for this emission of radiation from within the body in terms of when, where, what, why, and how.  Responses are given to multiple questions that arise regarding this working hypothesis.  And lastly a two-step image formation mechanism is proposed based on radiation emitted from within the body, which caused a corona discharge on the top portion of the fibers, which caused the discoloration of the fibers making up the front and back images.

 

Paper 5      “Information Content on the Shroud of Turin”, October 11, 2016

 

Abstract:  People can see the image of a crucified man on the Shroud of Turin because the threads of the Shroud contain fibers that are discolored in a pattern that contains the information content that defines the appearance of a crucified man.  This information could only have come from the body that was wrapped within the Shroud, because this information was only inherent to the body and not to its surroundings.  After considering the five possible options for how information can travel from one location to another (radiation, waves in a medium, direct contact, a flow of particles through physical connections, and diffusion of molecules), it is concluded that the only credible option for how this information could have been communicated from the body to the Shroud is by radiation (photons and/or particles) emitted from within the body which was then absorbed onto the Shroud.

 

Paper 4      “Review of ‘Test the Shroud’ by Mark Antonacci”, October 11, 2016

 

Abstract:  This is a review of the book “Test the Shroud” by Mark Antonacci.  This book summarizes the current status of research on the Shroud of Turin and the need for, nature of and expected results of further testing.  Writing for the layman, he covers all areas of the subject including the most difficult areas related to the C14 dating, the image formation, and the blood transfer.  His knowledge of references related to the Shroud is encyclopedic.  And the main purpose of the book, to promote additional testing, is very timely.

 

Paper 3      “Review of ‘The Shroud of Turin: Radiation Effects, Aging, and Image Formation’ by Ray Rogers”, October 11, 2016, by Robert A. Rucker, Giulio Fanti, Mark Antonacci, Tony Fleming, and Keith Propp

 

Abstract:  This is a review of the 2005 paper “The Shroud of Turin: Radiation Effects, Aging, and Image Formation” by Ray Rogers.  This paper was reviewed to determine the correctness of his methods and conclusions.  This paper was evidently never published or peer reviewed, yet is frequently referenced.  His main conclusion as stated in his abstract is that formation of the image on the Shroud of Turin “could not have involved energetic radiation of any kind; photons, electrons, protons, alpha particles, and/or neutrons.”  Review of Rogers’ paper found that this conclusion is not justified by the evidence that is presented, and in fact, the certainty of this conclusion contradicts the tentativeness of his last sentence in the body of his paper: “I believe that the current evidence suggests that all radiation-based hypotheses for image formation will ultimately be rejected.”  (Underlining added.)  This contradiction may have resulted from Rogers not completing this paper due to his ill health and eventual death at the beginning of 2005.  In contradiction to Rogers’ conclusion, this review also includes a summary of the reasons why radiation ought to be regarded as the most likely cause of the image on the Shroud of Turin.

 

Paper 2      “The Disappearance of Jesus’ Body, Part 2:  Physical Considerations, October 11, 2016

 

Abstract:  This document deals with physical/scientific aspects of how Jesus’ body disappeared from the tomb.  Seven physical processes that might have been involved in the disappearance of Jesus’ body from the tomb are considered based on the laws of science as we currently understand them and based on an extrapolation of those laws as suggested by aspects of modern physics.  Consideration of the pros and cons for these proposed processes indicates that disintegration of the body and involvement of a wormhole should be rejected as possible mechanisms for how the body disappeared.  It is concluded that a transition into an alternate dimensionality is the best option among the seven proposed processes for how Jesus’ body disappeared from the tomb, at least among those that are in any way related to our current understanding of the laws of physics.  Of course, a yet undefined process that is beyond even an extrapolation of our current laws of science could be the cause of the disappearance of the body, but this option could not be scientifically assessed due to its vagueness.

 

Paper 1      “The Disappearance of Jesus’ Body, Part 1:  Biblical and Theological Considerations”, October 8, 2016

 

Abstract:  This study investigates how Jesus’ body disappeared from the tomb.  In Part 1, which is this document, how Jesus’ body disappeared from the tomb is considered from the Biblical references to his resurrection and from the theology of resurrection throughout the Bible.  The perspective is that of Biblical Christianity.  It is concluded that in the resurrection, Jesus’ body underwent a basic transformation, a metamorphosis, from what Paul called a “natural body” to a “spiritual body”.  As described by the change in the adjective from “natural” to “spiritual”, this basic transformation in Jesus’ body is what allowed his body to exit the shroud and the tomb without disturbing either.  Physical considerations related to how Jesus’ body disappeared from the tomb are analyzed in Part 2.